A Self-study Reference and Practice Book for Intermediate Students. Raymond Murphy A self-study reference and practice book for elementary students of Grammar in Practice 3 PDF. Essential Grammar in Use is a grammar reference and practice book for elementary learners.
Författare: Roger Gower.
Modelled on Raymond Murphy`s highly successful intermediate level English Grammar in Use, it concentrates on areas of grammar normally taught at elementary level. English Grammar in Use: Supplementary Exercises with Answers. Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about a type of school in the United Kingdom and in former British territories. The original purpose of medieval grammar schools was the teaching of Latin. Grammar schools became the selective tier of the Tripartite System of state-funded secondary education operating in England and Wales from the mid-1940s to the late 1960s and continuing in Northern Ireland. Although the term scolae grammaticales was not widely used until the 14th century, the earliest such schools appeared from the sixth century, e.
With the foundation of the ancient universities from the late 12th century, grammar schools became the entry point to a liberal arts education, with Latin seen as the foundation of the trivium. An example of an early grammar school founded by an early modern borough corporation unconnected with church or university is Bridgnorth Grammar School, founded in 1503 by Bridgnorth Borough Corporation. During the English Reformation in the 16th century, most cathedral schools were closed and replaced by new foundations funded from the dissolution of the monasteries. With the increased emphasis on studying the scriptures after the Reformation, many schools added Greek and, in a few cases, Hebrew. The teaching of these languages was hampered by a shortage of non-Latin type and of teachers fluent in the languages.
The school day typically ran from 6 a. Most of the day was spent in the rote learning of Latin. To encourage fluency, some schoolmasters recommended punishing any pupil who spoke in English. However, by this time demand for these languages had fallen greatly. A new commercial class required modern languages and commercial subjects.
The 19th century saw a series of reforms to grammar schools, culminating in the Endowed Schools Act 1869. Grammar schools were reinvented as academically oriented secondary schools following literary or scientific curricula, while often retaining classical subjects. The Grammar Schools Act 1840 made it lawful to apply the income of grammar schools to purposes other than the teaching of classical languages, but change still required the consent of the schoolmaster. Bournemouth School opened on 22 January 1901, the day Queen Victoria died. In the Victorian era there was a great emphasis on the importance of self-improvement, and parents keen for their children to receive a decent education organised the creation of new schools with modern curricula, though often retaining a classical core. Act 1907 all grant-aided secondary schools were required to provide at least 25 percent of their places as free scholarships for students from public elementary schools. Grammar schools thus emerged as one part of the highly varied education system of England and Wales before 1944.